DVWA 黑客攻防演练(六)不安全的验证码 Insecure CAPTCHA

若有验证码的话,就比较难被攻击者利用 XSS 漏洞进行的 CSRF 攻击了,因为要识别验证码起码要调用api,跨域会被浏览器拦截,再者一些验证码很难被识别,比如知乎点击倒立的汉字,拖动拼图、百度的汉字验证码,谷歌的神奇的勾勾。。。 觉得这篇文章像是 CSRF 攻击 的一种补充(更像是谷歌验证码的使用教程,而且正常人的逻辑也不会犯这个问题的,其实可以跳过这篇文章)

话说回来,你会发现页面是这样的

其实也不用科学上网,直接在/var/www/html/config/config.inc.php 中 乱写个字符串就行了。

之后就会变成这样。

反正验证码加载不出来,要加载出来服务端也要科学上网,而我们需要做的是,绕过验证

而科学上网后,验证码是这样的,这肯定是破解不出来的。

初级

看代码,这里修改密码是分成二个部分的,一个部分是用来判断验证码的正确性,如果正确了就再返回密码的界面,这个界面就不再需要输入验证码的,按提交就可以修改密码了。这两个部分的用 form 表单的 step 字段区分。。。(大家都应该能猜到如何攻击了) 代码如下

 
<?php
//步骤1 
if (isset($_POST['Change']) && ($_POST['step'] == '1')) {
    // Hide the CAPTCHA form
    $hide_form = true;

    // Get input
    $pass_new = $_POST['password_new'];
    $pass_conf = $_POST['password_conf'];

    // Check CAPTCHA from 3rd party
    $resp = recaptcha_check_answer($_DVWA['recaptcha_private_key'],
        $_SERVER['REMOTE_ADDR'],
        $_POST['recaptcha_challenge_field'],
        $_POST['recaptcha_response_field']);

    // Did the CAPTCHA fail?
    if (!$resp->is_valid) {
        // What happens when the CAPTCHA was entered incorrectly
        $html .= "<pre><br />The CAPTCHA was incorrect. Please try again.</pre>";
        $hide_form = false;
        return;
    } else {
        //CAPTCHA was correct. Do both new passwords match?
        if ($pass_new == $pass_conf) {
            // Show next stage for the user
            echo "
                <pre><br />You passed the CAPTCHA! Click the button to confirm your changes.<br /></pre>
                <form action=\"#\" method=\"POST\">
                    <input type=\"hidden\" name=\"step\" value=\"2\" />
                    <input type=\"hidden\" name=\"password_new\" value=\"{$pass_new}\" />
                    <input type=\"hidden\" name=\"password_conf\" value=\"{$pass_conf}\" />
                    <input type=\"submit\" name=\"Change\" value=\"Change\" />
                </form>";
        } else {
            // Both new passwords do not match.
            $html .= "<pre>Both passwords must match.</pre>";
            $hide_form = false;
        }
    }
}
//步骤2 
if (isset($_POST['Change']) && ($_POST['step'] == '2')) {
    // Hide the CAPTCHA form
    $hide_form = true;

    // Get input
    $pass_new = $_POST['password_new'];
    $pass_conf = $_POST['password_conf'];

    // Check to see if both password match
    if ($pass_new == $pass_conf) {
        // They do!
        $pass_new = mysql_real_escape_string($pass_new);
        $pass_new = md5($pass_new);

        // Update database
        $insert = "UPDATE `users` SET password = '$pass_new' WHERE user = '" . dvwaCurrentUser() . "';";
        $result = mysql_query($insert) or die('<pre>' . mysql_error() . '</pre>');

        // Feedback for the end user
        echo "<pre>Password Changed.</pre>";
    } else {
        // Issue with the passwords matching
        echo "<pre>Passwords did not match.</pre>";
        $hide_form = false;
    }

    mysql_close();
}

?>

攻击方式也很简单,用 BurpSuite 直接改请求

或者打开火狐的审查元素(F12)直接改 form 表单

所以还是会有 CSRF 攻击漏洞的。

中级

中级篇主要区别是如果第一步验证成功了,会有一个 passed_captcha 字段

 
...
if (isset($_POST['Change']) && ($_POST['step'] == '2')) {
// Hide the CAPTCHA form
    $hide_form = true;

// Get input
    $pass_new = $_POST['password_new'];
    $pass_conf = $_POST['password_conf'];

//如果有做第一步  Check to see if they did stage 1
    if (!$_POST['passed_captcha']) {
        $html .= "
<pre><br/>You have not passed the CAPTCHA.</pre>";
        $hide_form = false;
        return;
    }

// Check to see if both password match
    if ($pass_new == $pass_conf) {
// They do!
        $pass_new = mysql_real_escape_string($pass_new);
        $pass_new = md5($pass_new);

// Update database
        $insert = "UPDATE `users` SET password = '$pass_new' WHERE user = '" . dvwaCurrentUser() . "';";
        $result = mysql_query($insert) or die('
<pre>' . mysql_error() . '</pre>');

// Feedback for the end user
        echo "
<pre>Password Changed.</pre>";
    } else {
// Issue with the passwords matching
        echo "
<pre>Passwords did not match.</pre>";
        $hide_form = false;
    }

    mysql_close();
}

?>

所以,同样可以用 burp suite 或者火狐添加一个参数吧。用火狐先打开审查元素,发一个失败的请求,然后修改请求如下。

高级

中级、高级不一样,不分步骤了。。。都放在一块了,关注点在请求失败的条件,代码如下。

 
<?php

if( isset( $_POST[ 'Change' ] ) ) {
    // Hide the CAPTCHA form
    $hide_form = true;

    // Get input
    $pass_new  = $_POST[ 'password_new' ];
    $pass_conf = $_POST[ 'password_conf' ];

    // Check CAPTCHA from 3rd party
    $resp = recaptcha_check_answer( $_DVWA[ 'recaptcha_private_key' ],
        $_SERVER[ 'REMOTE_ADDR' ],
        $_POST[ 'recaptcha_challenge_field' ],
        $_POST[ 'recaptcha_response_field' ] );

    // Did the CAPTCHA fail?
    if( !$resp->is_valid && ( $_POST[ 'recaptcha_response_field' ] != 'hidd3n_valu3' 
                           || $_SERVER[ 'HTTP_USER_AGENT' ] != 'reCAPTCHA' ) ) {
        // What happens when the CAPTCHA was entered incorrectly
        $html     .= "<pre><br />The CAPTCHA was incorrect. Please try again.</pre>";
        $hide_form = false;
        return;
    }
    else {
        // CAPTCHA was correct. Do both new passwords match?
        if( $pass_new == $pass_conf ) {
            $pass_new = mysql_real_escape_string( $pass_new );
            $pass_new = md5( $pass_new );

            // Update database
            $insert = "UPDATE `users` SET password = '$pass_new' WHERE user = '" . dvwaCurrentUser() . "' LIMIT 1;";
            $result = mysql_query( $insert ) or die( '<pre>' . mysql_error() . '</pre>' );

            // Feedback for user
            echo "<pre>Password Changed.</pre>";
        }
        else {
            // Ops. Password mismatch
            $html     .= "<pre>Both passwords must match.</pre>";
            $hide_form = false;
        }
    }

    mysql_close();
}

//神·生成token,服务器又不验证 Generate Anti-CSRF token 
generateSessionToken();

?>

关键是判断验证码是否失败的那句

 
// Did the CAPTCHA fail?
if (!$resp->is_valid && ($_POST['recaptcha_response_field'] != 'hidd3n_valu3'
        || $_SERVER['HTTP_USER_AGENT'] != 'reCAPTCHA')) {
    // What happens when the CAPTCHA was entered incorrectly
    $html .= "<pre><br />The CAPTCHA was incorrect. Please try again.</pre>";
    $hide_form = false;
    return;
}

而验证是否失败的条件是,谷歌服务器返回的结果是 false ,而且请求属性 recaptcha_response_field 的值不能是 hidd3n_valu3 或者* 请求头部的 HTTP_USER_AGENT 不能是 reCAPTCHA 。

也就是当 recaptcha_response_field 会是 hidd3n_valu3,头部的 HTTP_USER_AGENT 是 reCAPTCHA ,就能绕过了。

应该是逻辑错误的,估计是如果验证成功 recaptcha_response_field 会是 hidd3n_valu3,头部的 HTTP_USER_AGENT 会变成 reCAPTCHA 吧。 所以应该是

 
!($resp->is_valid && $_POST['recaptcha_response_field'] == 'hidd3n_valu3' && $_SERVER['HTTP_USER_AGENT'] == 'reCAPTCHA')

再换算

 
($resp->is_valid && ($_POST['recaptcha_response_field'] == 'hidd3n_valu3' && $_SERVER['HTTP_USER_AGENT'] == 'reCAPTCHA'))

然后在换算

 
!($resp->is_valid) || !($_POST['recaptcha_response_field'] == 'hidd3n_valu3' && $_SERVER['HTTP_USER_AGENT'] == 'reCAPTCHA')

不可能

与前面的相比

  • 判断验证码的方式只有 $resp->is_valid
  • 有验证生成的 token
  • 使用 prepare 预防 sql 注入
  • 要输入原密码
 
Insecure CAPTCHA Source
<?php

if (isset($_POST['Change'])) {
    // Check Anti-CSRF token
    checkToken($_REQUEST['user_token'], $_SESSION['session_token'], 'index.php');

    // Hide the CAPTCHA form
    $hide_form = true;

    // Get input
    $pass_new = $_POST['password_new'];
    $pass_new = stripslashes($pass_new);
    $pass_new = mysql_real_escape_string($pass_new);
    $pass_new = md5($pass_new);

    $pass_conf = $_POST['password_conf'];
    $pass_conf = stripslashes($pass_conf);
    $pass_conf = mysql_real_escape_string($pass_conf);
    $pass_conf = md5($pass_conf);

    $pass_curr = $_POST['password_current'];
    $pass_curr = stripslashes($pass_curr);
    $pass_curr = mysql_real_escape_string($pass_curr);
    $pass_curr = md5($pass_curr);

    // Check CAPTCHA from 3rd party
    $resp = recaptcha_check_answer($_DVWA['recaptcha_private_key'],
        $_SERVER['REMOTE_ADDR'],
        $_POST['recaptcha_challenge_field'],
        $_POST['recaptcha_response_field']);

    // Did the CAPTCHA fail?
    if (!$resp->is_valid) {
        // What happens when the CAPTCHA was entered incorrectly
        echo "<pre><br />The CAPTCHA was incorrect. Please try again.</pre>";
        $hide_form = false;
        return;
    } else {
        // Check that the current password is correct
        $data = $db->prepare('SELECT password FROM users WHERE user = (:user) AND password = (:password) LIMIT 1;');
        $data->bindParam(':user', dvwaCurrentUser(), PDO::PARAM_STR);
        $data->bindParam(':password', $pass_curr, PDO::PARAM_STR);
        $data->execute();

        // Do both new password match and was the current password correct?
        if (($pass_new == $pass_conf) && ($data->rowCount() == 1)) {
            // Update the database
            $data = $db->prepare('UPDATE users SET password = (:password) WHERE user = (:user);');
            $data->bindParam(':password', $pass_new, PDO::PARAM_STR);
            $data->bindParam(':user', dvwaCurrentUser(), PDO::PARAM_STR);
            $data->execute();

            // Feedback for the end user - success!
            echo "<pre>Password Changed.</pre>";
        } else {
            // Feedback for the end user - failed!
            echo "<pre>Either your current password is incorrect or the new passwords did not match.<br />Please try again.</pre>";
            $hide_form = false;
        }
    }
}

// Generate Anti-CSRF token
generateSessionToken();

?>